US sanctions on Venezuela’s national oil company PdV, first imposed on 28 January 2019, cast another layer of geopolitical uncertainty onto the international oil market. The sanctions take effect in stages, gradually intensifying their impact on the Opec country’s imports and exports.

For international oil companies, traders and governments around the world, the sanctions rollout and partial unwinding of commercial ties will help to shape near-term market dynamics, with longer-term implications for energy policy and investment.

Follow along with Argus as we deliver the latest news and market analysis on this fast-developing story.

Timeline: Key Venezuela sanctions dates

Venezuela timeline

Map: Primary Venezuelan oil assets

Venezuela map