Lula assina pacote para incentivar energia verde

  • : Agriculture, Biofuels, Crude oil, E-fuels, Emissions, Oil products
  • 23/09/14

O presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva assinou, nesta quinta-feira (14), a mensagem de envio dos termos do projeto de lei (PL) Combustível do Futuro, em uma tentativa de acelerar a transição energética e substituir gradualmente os combustíveis fósseis.

O projeto, que foi lançado em cerimônia no Palácio do Planalto, em Brasília, ainda depende de aprovação do Congresso Nacional para se tornar lei.

Se aprovado, o Brasil adotará formalmente normativas estabelecendo metas para o uso sustentável de combustível de aviação (SAF, na sigla em inglês) e diesel verde para apoiar seu compromisso de carbono zero até 2050.

O tão discutido aumento da mistura de anidro na gasolina de 27,5pc para 30pc também foi incluído na proposta.

"O Brasil poderia se tornar tão ou mais importante para os combustíveis renováveis quanto o Oriente Médio é para o petróleo", disse Lula, repetindo declarações semelhantes que fez durante oboom de biocombustíveis do país na década de 2000. Abrir caminho para um futuro energético mais limpo é uma grande parte da sua agenda internacional, disse ele.

Lula também aludiu a reuniões oficiais com empresas do setor nos Estados Unidos, na próxima semana, e na Alemanha, ainda neste ano, para discutir assuntos relacionados aos combustíveis renováveis.

O ministro de Minas e Energia, Alexandre Silveira, disse que a iniciativa é resultado direto dos esforços do governo para a transição energética global. "O Brasil será provedor de soluções de baixo carbono para outras nações", disse ele.

Palestrantes na Cúpula do Clima no Brasil, em Nova York, esta semana, pediram um plano de eliminação progressiva dos combustíveis fósseis para que o país pudesse se posicionar como um pioneiro na implementação de políticas climáticas.

O que pode mudar?

Algumas das mudanças propostas são:

  • Captura e armazenamento de carbono (CCS, na sigla em inglês): propõe um marco regulatório para o exercício das atividades de captura e estocagem geológica de dióxido de carbono, cuja regulação será atribuída à Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis (ANP).
  • Diesel verde: cria o Programa Nacional do Diesel Verde (PNDV) para incorporação gradativa do diesel verde à matriz de combustíveis do país, com um mandato ainda a ser definido pelo Conselho Nacional de Política Energética (CNPE).
  • E-fuels: estabelece meios legais que incentivem a produção dos chamados e-fuels, alternativas sintéticas aos combustíveis fósseis feitos a partir de hidrogênio e CO2.
  • Mistura de anidro na gasolina: aumenta a mistura máxima de etanol anidro na gasolina de 27,5pc para 30pc.
  • SAF: estabelece metas de emissões para as companhias aéreas, incentivando o aumento do uso de SAF, visando alcançar uma redução de 1pc nas emissões para as companhias aéreas até 2027 e 10pc até 2037.

Possíveis repercussões para o etanol

O pacote deve oferecer algum alívio à indústria do etanol, que tem encontrado dificuldades para defender suas margens em meio a uma maior oferta de produto e um mercado consumidor em contração.

Um eventual aumento da mistura de anidro na gasolina, de 27,5pc para 30pc, poderia ajudar a elevar a demanda por etanol no mercado interno, avalia a BP Bunge, citando um aumento potencial de 80.000 m³/mês na comercialização.

A mudança também poderia aumentar a octanagem da gasolina e potencialmente alterar as operações das refinarias brasileiras de combustíveis fósseis.

Nos termos do projeto, a via de conversão da tecnologia alcohol-to-jet (AtJ, na sigla em inglês) surge como o caminho mais viável para aumentar o uso de SAF no país.

Mandato de biodiesel

O setor de biodiesel ficou fora do PL.

A Frente Parlamentar Mista do Biodiesel (FPBio), liderada pelo deputado federal Alceu Moreira (MDB-RS), tem uma proposta para aumentar o mandato de mistura do biodiesel dos atuais 12pc para 13-14pc, disseram fontes à

Argus

Durante a cerimônia, Lula sugeriu que o Conselho Nacional de Política Energética (CNPE) se reúna para discutir o aumento do mandato, mas a data ainda não foi definida.

"Se depender de mim, reabriremos todas as usinas de biodiesel fechadas [nos últimos anos]", afirmou o presidente.

Erasmo Battistella, presidente da Be8, também defendeu o aumento da mescla em discurso no evento, argumentando que o Brasil deveria trabalhar para elevar o mandato a 15pc em 2024.

"A Embrapa [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária] tem 19 variedades de oleaginosas mapeadas que podem ser usadas na produção de biodiesel", disse Battistella, sobre a disponibilidade de insumos.

Além disso, Heloisa Borges Esteves, diretora de petróleo, gás e biocombustíveis na Empresa de Pesquisa Energética (EPE), afirmou que as novas regulamentações para o setor de hidrogênio estão "caminhando em ritmo acelerado".


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