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Brasil defende etanol como combustível marítimo

  • : Biofuels, Petrochemicals
  • 23/10/19

A defesa do uso do etanol como combustível marítimo ganha cada vez mais adeptos no setor energético brasileiro, em um momento em que armadores buscam opções viáveis para descarbonizar a navegação.

Embora o uso do etanol como alternativa ao óleo combustível marítimo tenha ocorrido apenas em fase de teste, o governo estuda, em parceria com empresas navais e companhias sucroalcooleiras, um caminho para alavancar a adoção do biocombustível, fontes disseram à Argus.

A postura adotada pelo Brasil ocorre depois que os membros da Organização Marítima Internacional (IMO, na sigla em inglês), concordaram em reduzir suas emissões em pelo menos 20pc, e de preferência 30pc, até 2030; em pelo menos 70pc, e de preferência 80pc, até 2040; e carbono zero até 2050.

A amônia, o metanol e o hidrogênio estão entre as opções propícias a liderar o esforço global para descarbonizar o transporte marítimo, enquanto alguns armadores estão investindo em novas tecnologias, como a captura e armazenamento de carbono (CCS, na sigla em inglês). Mas o Brasil aposta que o etanol pode desempenhar um papel fundamental nesse futuro.

"Aproveitar nossa experiência com o uso de biocombustíveis em carros e caminhões é um primeiro passo para estruturar soluções para outros setores, incluindo a navegação", disse José Nilton Vieira, coordenador-geral de etanol e biometano no Ministério de Minas e Energia, na conferência sobre navegação verde da IMO, que ocorreu no Chile.

Segundo Vieira, o ministério está estudando formas de substituir gradualmente os combustíveis fósseis na indústria marítima, em linha com o projeto Combustível do Futuro, que estabeleceu metas para setor de aviação.

Futuro flex-álcool

Esse raciocínio está em linha com estudos feitos pela finlandesa Wärtsilä Marine para adaptar o motor flexível do grupo, que opera movido a óleo combustível marítimo e metanol, para também aceitar etanol.

A ideia nasceu na filial brasileira da empresa em 2015, quando o grupo Wärtsila foi contratado pela operadora de balsas sueca Stena Line para converter a embarcação Stena Germanica para operar com metanol.

"Enxergamos que o metanol e o etanol poderiam ser intercambiáveis porque são combustíveis bastante similares", disse o gerente sênior de vendas da empresa na América Latina, Mario Barbosa, à Argus. Os dois combustíveis podem compartilhar características técnicas comuns, como sistemas de injeção e tanques de combustível.

Mas fazer o projeto andar se provou mais difícil do que o esperado, em meio ao debate "food versus fuel" na Europa.

"Os armadores brasileiros são mais receptivos ao conceito porque conhecem bem a infraestrutura por trás da cadeia do etanol em seu país. Para o público europeu, é importante desmistificar crenças sobre sustentabilidade", afirmou Barbosa.

No caminho, a Wärtsilä encontrou um braço amigo na Raízen para realizar estudos de viabilidade, e agora está conduzindo testes em escala comercial em sua sede na Finlândia.

Para operar com metanol, os motores precisam de tanques de combustível que ocupam cerca de 1,7 vezes o tamanho do diesel. Mas, como o etanol tem poder calorífico superior ao de sua substância irmã, menos biocombustível seria consumido para se obter a mesma potência, segundo estudos das empresas.

Próximos passos

A tecnologia, no entanto, é um obstáculo menor em comparação aos próximos desafios que surgirão.

"No fundo, estamos lidando com uma barreira maior de regulação, de visão de mundo e geopolítica, do que de tecnologia", disse à Argus Mateus Lopes, diretor global de transição energética e investimentos da Raízen, em um evento da indústria de etanol.

Lopes acredita que o maior desafio é convencer participantes do setor naval de que o etanol brasileiro pode ajudar a atingir as metas regulatórias da IMO para 2050.

"A indústria marítima está olhando esse mundo eletrificado do hidrogênio, da amônia e do metanol, mas esquecendo de um produto que está na prateleira com 80 milhões de litros disponíveis e que pode ser combinado com essas outras soluções para construir um roadmap", disse.

O executivo da Raízen vê semelhanças com os desafios atuais na indústria de combustível sustentável de aviação (SAF, na sigla em inglês). "Nossa tarefa é sentar à mesa e compartilhar informações para que o etanol seja percebido como uma opção imediata."

Por Vinicius Damazio


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24/07/19

Von der Leyen faces new Green Deal challenges

Von der Leyen faces new Green Deal challenges

The president promises a ‘clean industrial deal', but will need to make compromises over climate policy, writes Dafydd ab Iago Brussels, 19 July (Argus) — Ursula von der Leyen's re-election by the European Parliament as president of the European Commission on 18 July promises to see a doubling down on climate and energy policy, with her 2024-29 mandate stipulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cuts of at least 90pc by 2040 compared with 1990. "I have not forgotten how [Russian president Vladimir] Putin blackmailed us by cutting us off from Russian fossil fuels. We invested massively in homegrown cheap renewables and this enabled us to break free from dirty Russian fossil fuels," von der Leyen says, promising to end the "era of dependency on Russian fossil fuels". She has not given an end date for this, nor specified if this includes a commitment to ending Russian LNG imports. Von der Leyen went on to detail political guidelines for 2024-29. She has pledged to propose a "clean industrial deal" in the first 100 days of her new mandate, albeit without giving concrete figures about how much investment this would channel to infrastructure and industry, particularly for energy-intensive sectors. The clean industrial deal will help bring down energy bills, she says. Von der Leyen told parliament that the commission would propose legislation, under the European Climate Law, establishing a 90pc emissions-reduction target for 2040. Her political guidelines also call for scaling up and prioritising investment in clean technologies, including grid infrastructure, storage capacity, transport for captured CO2, energy efficiency, power digitalisation and a hydrogen network. She plans to extend aggregate demand mechanisms beyond gas to include hydrogen and critical raw materials, and notes the dangers of dependencies and fraying supply chains — from Putin's energy blackmail to China's monopoly on battery and chip raw materials. Majority report Passing the necessary legislation to implement her stated policies will now require approval from EU states and parliament. Unless amplified by Germany's election next year, election victories by far-right parties in France and elsewhere appear not to threaten EU state majorities for specific legislation. Parliament's political centre-left S&D and liberal Renew groups, as well as von der Leyen's own centre-right European People's Party (EPP), have elaborated key policy requests. These broadly call for the continuation of the European Green Deal — a set of legislation and policy measures aimed at 55pc GHG emissions reductions by 2030 compared with 1990. A symbolic issue for von der Leyen to decide on — or compromise on — is that of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. EPP wants to stick to technological neutrality and revise the current mandate for sales of new ICE cars to be phased out by 2035, if they cannot run exclusively on carbon-neutral fuels. The EPP wants an e-fuel, biofuel and low-carbon fuel strategy. Von der Leyen's guidelines reflect the need to gain support from centre-right, centre-left and greens. She says the 2035 climate neutrality target for new cars creates investor and manufacturer "predictability" but requires a "technology-neutral approach, in which e-fuels have a role to play". She has not mentioned carbon-neutral biofuels. It will be impossible for von der Leyen to satisfy all demands in her second mandate. This includes policy requests put forward by the EPP, ranging from a "pragmatic" definition of low-carbon hydrogen and market rules for carbon capture and storage, to postponing the EU's deforestation regulation. EU member states are expected to propose their candidates for commissioners in August, including for energy, climate and trade policy, with von der Leyen's new commission subject to a final vote in parliament in late October. Send comments and request more information at feedback@argusmedia.com Copyright © 2024. Argus Media group . All rights reserved.

Trump vows to target 'green' spending, EV rules


24/07/19
24/07/19

Trump vows to target 'green' spending, EV rules

Washington, 19 July (Argus) — Former president Donald Trump promised to redirect US green energy spending to other projects, throw out electric vehicle (EV) rules and increase drilling, in a speech Thursday night formally accepting the Republican presidential nomination. Trump's acceptance speech, delivered at the Republican National Convention, offered the clearest hints yet at his potential plans for dismantling the Inflation Reduction Act and the 2021 bipartisan infrastructure law. Without explicitly naming the two laws, Trump said he would claw back unspent funds for the "Green New Scam," a shorthand he has used in the past to criticize spending on wind, solar, EVs, energy infrastructure and climate resilience. "All of the trillions of dollars that are sitting there not yet spent, we will redirect that money for important projects like roads, bridges, dams, and we will not allow it to be spent on the meaningless Green New Scam ideas," Trump said during the final night of the convention in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Trump and his campaign have yet to clearly detail their plans for the two laws, which collectively provide hundreds of billions of dollars worth of federal tax credits and direct spending for renewable energy, EVs, clean hydrogen, carbon capture, sustainable aviation fuel, biofuels, nuclear and advanced manufacturing. Repealing those programs outright could be politically difficult because a majority of spending from the two laws have flowed to districts represented by Republican lawmakers. The speech was Trump's first public remarks since he was grazed by a bullet in an assassination attempt on 13 July. Trump used the shooting to call for the country to unite, but he repeatedly slipped back into the divisive rhetoric of his campaign and his grievances against President Joe Biden, who he claimed was the worst president in US history. Trump vowed to "end the electric vehicle mandate" on the first day of his administration, in an apparent reference to tailpipe rules that are expected to result in about 54pc of new cars and trucks sales being battery-only EVs by model year 2032. Trump also said that unless automakers put their manufacturing facilities in the US, he would put tariffs of 100-200pc on imported vehicles. To tackle inflation, Trump said he would bring down interest rates, which are controlled by the US Federal Reserve, an agency that historically acts independently from the White House. Trump also said he would bring down prices for energy through a policy of "drill, baby, drill" and cutting regulations. Trump also vowed to pursue tax cuts, tariffs and the "largest deportation in history," all of which independent economists say would add to inflation. The Republican convention unfolded as Biden, who is isolating after testing positive for Covid-19, faces a growing chorus of top Democratic lawmakers pressuring him to drop out of the presidential race. Democrats plan to select their presidential nominee during an early virtual roll-call vote or at the Democratic National Convention on 19-22 August. By Chris Knigh t Send comments and request more information at feedback@argusmedia.com Copyright © 2024. Argus Media group . All rights reserved.

Q&A: Aviation may pull feeds away from marine: BV


24/07/19
24/07/19

Q&A: Aviation may pull feeds away from marine: BV

London, 19 July (Argus) — Biofuel feedstocks could be routed away from marine fuels to meet demand from the aviation sector if the latter is willing to pay higher prices associated with sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), Bureau Veritas (BV) Marine & Offshore's global market leader for sustainable shipping Julien Boulland told Argus. Edited highlights follow: Marine biodiesel has been the largest alternative fuel uptake, with over 1mn t sold in Rotterdam and Singapore last year. But with Argus assessments showing premiums above $225/t to VLSFO dob ARA, how do you see marine biodiesel demand in the medium- to long-term? Shipowners and ship operators have to run an individual cost-analysis on whether the premiums could be offset by potential savings under EU emissions trading system (ETS) and FuelEU Maritime regulations, as well as any future regulations such as the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) economic pricing mechanism . In terms of emissions, biofuels still emit CO2 on a tank-to-wake basis, but less on a well-to-wake basis compared to their fossil equivalents. This will also vary depending on the feedstock for the biofuel as well as the production process. Under the current IMO regulations for energy efficiency, including the Ship Energy Management Plan (SEEMP) and its requirements for fuel reporting (DCS), there might be some indirect commercial benefits for owners, too. For example, a better CII (Carbon Intensity Indicator) score may make a vessel more appealing to charterers and help its owner secure more favourable rates. There are also other factors to consider, such as Scope 3 emissions rights, which can influence demand, as we currently see from voluntary demand from cargo owners seeking those documents. But this will also have a geographic impact on demand, as larger container liner companies usually utilise the east-west route and they might prefer to opt for bunkering the marine biodiesel blend in Singapore due to lower prices. What are the risks associated with bunkering marine biodiesel in relation to conventional ship engines? How significant is the recent FOBAS report that implied a correlation between the use of "unidentified" biofuels and engine pump injector damage? We have supported our shipowner clients in numerous pilots to trial biofuels such as fatty acid methyl ester (Fame) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) in variable blends. Overall, these trials have gone smoothly, but we have learned a few things along the way. Firstly, engines do not need to be modified, but since biofuels have slightly different physical properties, it is necessary to find the right engine adjustments. A very good knowledge of the fuel properties is key in determining the right adjustments, and the new revision of ISO 8217 on marine fuel specifications is crucial in supporting this process. Another key finding is the importance of receiving full information on fuel characteristics from the supplier. Finally, BV plays a key role in ensuring full fuel certification on several aspects, including sustainability and physical properties. Used cooking oil (UCO) can also feed into SAF and with potentially greater refining margins. Do you think some feedstocks will be pulled away from marine? When it comes to methanol, we believed marine would take up more of the feedstock compared with the chemicals industry due to greater willingness to pay larger premiums. But with biofuels, it seems to be the other way around where aviation could end up pulling biofuel feedstocks away from maritime. In terms of fuel consumption, the marine and aviation industries are comparable but if aviation are willing to pay more, then it will likely get more of the feedstocks required to produce SAF. What are the implications of the new ISO specifications, what are the key takeaways for marine biodiesel uptake? More has to be done, but now we have parameters for assessing biofuel blend specifications. It was very well accepted by the industry, and now operators and shipowners have a standard to rely on. But it doesn't resolve the question around feedstock cross-industry competition. However, it does also open the door for off-spec Fame residue blends to become ISO-certified — depending on further testing. With IMO aiming for "global regulations for a global market", how do you see conflicts between different regulations affecting the market? We are closely following the IMO development process for a global economic pricing mechanism. IMO has assigned a working group of technical experts to look at this mechanism from an apolitical perspective. In terms of potential regulatory conflicts , we have the example of the Netherlands, where the Dutch emission authority requires the delivery of Proof of Sustainability (PoS) certificates for applying to the scheme of Dutch renewable tickets (HBE-G) which can be traded, but this PoS cannot be used for other purposes, such as the EU ETS. To circumvent this hiccup, we may see the development of new digital certificates, such as an accompanying ISCC-certified Proof of Compliance (PoC). By Hussein Al-Khalisy Send comments and request more information at feedback@argusmedia.com Copyright © 2024. Argus Media group . All rights reserved.

EU’s von der Leyen re-elected as Commission president


24/07/18
24/07/18

EU’s von der Leyen re-elected as Commission president

Brussels, 18 July (Argus) — The European Parliament today approved Ursula von der Leyen's re-election as president of the European Commission. Nominated by EU states in June, von der Leyen received 401 votes, by secret ballot, from parliament's 720 newly elected members. Von der Leyen called for continuing climate and energy policy in her 2024-29 mandate to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) cuts of at least 90pc by 2040 from 1990 levels. "I have not forgotten how [Russian president Vladimir] Putin blackmailed us by cutting us off from Russian fossil fuels. We invested massively in homegrown cheap renewables. And this enabled us to break free from dirty Russian fossil fuels," said von der Leyen, promising to end the "era of dependency on Russian fossil fuels". She did not give an end date for this, nor did she specify if this includes a commitment to end Russian LNG imports. Von der Leyen went on to detail political guidelines for 2024-29. In the first 100 days of her new mandate, she pledged to propose a "clean industrial deal", albeit without giving concrete figures about how much investment this would channel to infrastructure and industry, particularly for energy-intensive sectors. The clean industrial deal will help bring down energy bills, she said. Von der Leyen told parliament the commission would propose legislation, under the European Climate Law, establishing a 90pc emission-reduction target for 2040. Her political guidelines also call for scaling up and prioritising clean-tech investment, including in grid infrastructure, storage capacity, transport infrastructure for captured CO2, energy efficiency, power digitalization, and deployment of a hydrogen network. She will also extend aggregate demand mechanisms beyond gas to include hydrogen and critical raw materials. Her political guidelines note the dangers of dependencies or fraying supply chains, from Putin's "energy blackmail" or China's monopoly on battery and chip raw materials. Majority report Passing the necessary legislation to implement her stated policies will now require approval from EU states and from parliament. Unless amplified by Germany's election next year, election victories by far-right parties in France and elsewhere appear not to threaten EU state majorities for specific legislation. Parliament's political centre-left S&D and liberal Renew groups, as well as von der Leyen's own centre-right EPP, have elaborated key policy requests . These broadly call for the continuation of von der Leyen's Green Deal, the set of legislation and policy measures aimed at 55pc GHG emission reduction by 2030, compared with 1990 levels. A symbolic issue for von der Leyen to decide, or compromise on, is the internal combustion engine (ICE). Her EPP group wants to stick to technological neutrality and to revise the phase-out, by 2035, of new ICE cars if they cannot run exclusively on carbon-neutral fuels. The EPP wants an EU e-fuel, biofuel, and low-carbon fuel strategy. Von der Leyen's guidelines reflect the need to gain support from centre-right, centre-left, and greens. For the ICE phase-out, she said the 2035 climate neutrality target for new cars creates investor and manufacturer "predictability" but requires a "technology-neutral approach, in which e-fuels have a role to play." She made no mention of carbon-neutral biofuels. It will be impossible for von der Leyen to satisfy all demands in her second mandate. That includes policy asks put forward by the EPP, ranging from a "pragmatic" definition of low-carbon hydrogen, market rules for carbon capture and storage, postponing the EU's deforestation regulation, to catering more for farmers, even by scrapping EU wildlife protection for wolves and bears. EU member states are expected to propose their candidates for commissioners in August, including those responsible for energy, climate, and trade policies. When parliament has held hearings for candidates in late October, von der Leyen's new commission would then be subject to a final vote. By Dafydd ab Iago Send comments and request more information at feedback@argusmedia.com Copyright © 2024. Argus Media group . All rights reserved.

Spain includes SAF, marine fuels in renewables targets


24/07/17
24/07/17

Spain includes SAF, marine fuels in renewables targets

London, 17 July (Argus) — Spain will start counting sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) and marine fuels towards its renewable energy targets, the government said. Starting from the 2024 financial year, SAFs and marine fuels will count toward meeting targets for sale or consumption of biofuels. A multiplier of 1.2 will be applied to the energy content of the fuels. An EU-wide SAF mandate will come into effect in 2025 that will set a minimum target of 2pc. The target rises to 6pc from 1 January 2030 and to 20pc from 1 January 2035, with a minimum share of 5pc of synthetic aviation fuels. The law defines synthetic aviation fuels as certified renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) that includes renewable hydrogen and derivatives such as e-methanol, e-ammonia and e-kerosene. EU states must bring this into their national legislation in line with the revised renewables directive by 21 May 2025. Spain's new remit also introduces hydrogen , biogas and RFNBOs . These will be double counted under Spain's biofuels certification system. By Evelina Lungu Send comments and request more information at feedback@argusmedia.com Copyright © 2024. Argus Media group . All rights reserved.

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