Industria automotriz impulsaría nearshoring en México

  • Market: Metals, Oil products
  • 26/02/24

Los fabricantes de automóviles ayudarán a determinar el alcance de las inversiones del nearshoring en México a medida que el impacto de este fenómeno sea más claro a lo largo de 2024.

México ha visto casi $60 mil millones en planes de inversión relacionados con el nearshoring en tan solo 10 proyectos anunciados en los últimos 12 meses.

Si bien el alcance del desarrollo del nearshoring en México dependerá en gran medida de políticas generales este año, la atención ya se centra en los grandes proyectos de fabricantes de automóviles como Nissan de Japón, Kia de Corea del Sur y en los de un floreciente sector integrado por 13 fabricantes más pequeños de origen chino, como Chirey, MG, BYD, Geely, Omoda, Jetour, entre otros.

La industria nacional de autopartes (INA) estima que México podría atraer hasta $44 mil millones de inversión en autopartes y proveedores automotrices a través del nearshoring en los próximos años. La reubicación o expansión de las cadenas de producción a México para estar más cerca de Estados Unidos atrae inversiones en toda la industria, dijo recientemente el presidente del INA, Francisco González.

Teniendo en cuenta que el gobierno estima que México ya ha recibido $110 mil millones del nearshoring desde que comenzó el fenómeno, la asociación ha estimado que alrededor de 40pc de eso está relacionado con el sector automotriz.

Nuevo León favorecido

Solo el estado de Nuevo León, en la frontera norte de Texas, podría recibir $23 mil millones en los próximos años, en gran parte debido a la construcción de una gigafábrica planificada por el fabricante de vehículos eléctricos Tesla fuera de la ciudad Monterrey.

Además de la inversión estimada de aproximadamente $5 mil millones de Tesla, esto atraería a una serie de fabricantes de equipos originales y otros proveedores de piezas y servicio, lo que podría llevar la inversión total hasta $15 mil millones.

Sin embargo, la gigafábrica de Tesla que se construiría en Santa Catarina, en los suburbios de Monterrey, tendrá el visto bueno hasta que la planta de la misma empresa en Austin, Texas, haya completado el desarrollo de un modelo de construcción de menor costo para 2025.

Pero esto no ha impedido que un gran número de fabricantes de equipos originales y otros integrantes de la cadena de suministro estén empezando a planificar la construcción de nuevas instalaciones cerca del sitio de la gigafábrica para estar listos cuando Tesla construya su planta.

Entre ellos, está AGP eGlass que dijo que planea gastar $800 millones en la construcción de una planta de vidrio automotriz de alta tecnología para suministrar a fabricantes como Tesla.

De los 278 proyectos automotrices registrados en 2023, un total de 54 se encuentran en Nuevo León, que lo sitúa en segundo lugar nacional, solo por debajo de Coahuila con 56 proyectos en total, y por encima de Guanajuato con 49 y Querétaro con 28.

Y de las 54 inversiones registradas en Nuevo León, 23 están enfocadas en la movilidad eléctrica.

Esto convierte a Nuevo León en la entidad que atrajo más proyectos de electromovilidad en 2023, por encima de Coahuila, con 19 proyectos y Guanajuato, que registró 13 proyectos de este tipo.

En cuanto a la generación de empleos que se anticipa como resultado del nearshoring, el gobierno de Nuevo Leon afirma que ya ha generado más de 42,000 puestos de trabajo directamente relacionados con el sector automovilístico.

Inversiones anunciadas de nearshoring para México$mn
CompañíaTipo de proyectoInversión Ubicación Anuncio
Tesla**Fabricación de autos eléctricos 15,000Nuevo León28 Feb 23
KiaUnidad de producción3,000Nuevo León15 May 23
VolkswagenFabricación de autos eléctricos 942Puebla16 Feb 24
BMWEnsamblaje autos eléctricos 865San Luis Potosí23 Feb 23
AGP GlassProveedor Tesla 800Nuevo León27 Sep 22
VolkswagenAutomotriz / cadena suministro764Puebla27 Oct 22
NissanPlanta de ensamblado700Aguascalientes24 Dic 23
Ningbuo Tuopo Group (NTG)Ensamblaje automotriz700Nuevo León28 Oct 23
ELAM-FAWAutopartes407Colima30 Ene 24
Unison ShanghaiComponente de autos y partes de aluminio400San Luis Potosí18 Ene 24

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