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Inundações podem prejudicar logística no Sul do Brasil

  • Market: Fertilizers
  • 10/05/24

Enchentes sem precedentes no estado do Rio Grande do Sul devem criar uma situação logística ainda mais caótica no país e podem reduzir o uso de fertilizantes na safra de soja 2024-25 do estado.

Chuvas intensas atingem o estado desde 29 de abril, culminando nas piores enchentes já registradas no Rio Grande do Sul. As enchentes alcançaram a área central do estado, fechando os portos de Pelotas e Porto Alegre, que movimentam commodities agrícolas, incluindo grãos, oleaginosas e fertilizantes. Os níveis elevados de água devem chegar até o Sul do estado, alcançando o porto de Rio Grande.

Os três portos do Rio Grande do Sul movimentaram cerca de 44,8 milhões de toneladas (t) em 2023, sendo o porto de Rio Grande o maior deles, respondendo por pelo menos 42,6 milhões de t, de acordo com dados portuários.

O perfil geográfico do estado e um canal particularmente estreito para o escoamento das águas até o mar sugerem que o pior ainda está por vir na parte Sul do estado. Os níveis de água devem aumentar na Lagoa dos Patos, um lago que recebe águas de diversos rios e desemboca no Oceano Atlântico.

Porém, as operações estão acontecendo normalmente no porto de Rio Grande até 9 de maio. A Associação Nacional dos Exportadores de Cereais (Anec) projeta que 343.250t de soja e 131.778t de farelo de soja sejam embarcados na semana encerrada em 11 de maio, de acordo com o cronograma de embarques do porto. Os embarques entre 28 de abril e 4 de maio — que representam os dias em que as chuvas atingiram seu pico e o estado começou a inundar — totalizaram 183.559t e 133.424t de soja e farelo de soja, respectivamente.

Dados de lineup da agência marítima Williams mostram que as exportações de soja devem totalizar 838.600t, quase o dobro do volume projetado na semana anterior. O tempo médio estimado de espera para embarque aumentou para 3 dias, em comparação com 2 dias estimados em 29 de abril. O porto de Rio Grande foi o 5º maior exportador de soja em 2023, com 3,8 milhões de t embarcadas no ano passado, de acordo com a Agência Nacional de Transportes Aquaviários (Antaq).

O tempo de espera para descarga de fertilizantes está em torno de 1 dia, estável em comparação com a semana anterior. O porto de Rio Grande foi o 3º maior em termos de volumes de importação de fertilizantes no 1º trimestre de 2024, de acordo com dados da agência marítima Unimar. O porto de Paranaguá, no Paraná, recebeu 2 milhões de t de fertilizantes, seguido de Santos e Rio Grande, com 1,9 milhão de t e 990.640t, respectivamente.

Dados de lineup para maio e junho apontam que Rio Grande deve receber 540.900t e 66.375t de fertilizantes, respectivamente. Os navios com destino a Rio Grande podem ser direcionados para outros portos, especialmente para São Franciso do Sul, em Santa Catarina, e Paranaguá, de acordo com participantes de mercado.

Mesmo que os volumes de fertilizantes sejam descarregados conforme planejado inicialmente, o escoamento para as áreas agrícolas pode ficar comprometido. O principal acesso ao porto, a rodovia BR-116, já está parcialmente bloqueada, dificultando o fluxo de caminhões no estado.

Os motoristas já buscam trechos curtos para transportar mercadorias, uma vez que os trechos longos os obrigam a procurar alternativas que elevam ainda mais o percurso, considerando que há cerca de 88 bloqueios parciais ou totais em rodovias no estado até 9 de maio.

A empresa de logística Rumo também interrompeu parcialmente as operações no Rio Grande do Sul em 6 de maio. A empresa possui um terminal de grãos no porto de Rio Grande e uma malha ferroviária de cerca de 7.220km na região Sul do Brasil, que inclui os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná.

Empresas de fertilizantes que atuam no Rio Grande do Sul relataram que estão tentando mover seus produtos para armazéns longes dos rios. Considerando a produção agrícola, os volumes que já foram colhidos e estavam armazenados em silos, estão encharcados agora. Com a previsão de mais danos, agricultores do Rio Grande do Sul podem se sentir desencorajados a investir em tecnologias e fertilizantes para a próxima safra de soja 2024-25.

Mais chuvas para o fim de semana

O Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (Inmet) espera que as chuvas se intensifiquem novamente no Rio Grande do Sul, começando nesta sexta-feira, entre as regiões Centro-Norte e Oeste do estado.

Os níveis de chuva devem diminuir até 12 de maio, mas podem ultrapassar 100mm antes disso.

As áreas litorâneas das regiões Norte e Sul de Santa Catarina também devem ser afetadas, de acordo com o Inmet.


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